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中加幼儿园之探究式学习

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国际学校网   http://www.ctiku.com/
国际学校网核心提示:当今社会,越来越多的工作机会需要应聘者具备创新性思考能力、从不同角度解决问题的能力以及批判性思维。为了让学习者能够充分适应并且参与到充满竞争性的工作环境中去,教室里的教学方法迫切需要改变。

       当今社会,越来越多的工作机会需要应聘者具备创新性思考能力、从不同角度解决问题的能力以及批判性思维。为了让学习者能够充分适应并且参与到充满竞争性的工作环境中去,教室里的教学方法迫切需要改变。
  Many of today’s job opportunities require workers to think outside of the box and problem-solve from different angles, and critical thinking. In order to provide the learners of today with the tools to participate fully in this challenging workforce, the understandings of teaching methodology in the classroom must be changed.

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  杜威曾在《经验与教育》(1938)第四页中描述传统的教育计划在实质上是自上自外注入的计划,他把承认的标准、教料及方法,加诸这些正在生长的儿童。与传统的教育计划相反,杜威倡导教育者尊重并且承认儿童在学习以及建构知识上的积极主动性。根据杜威的启示,单一的教学方法需要转换为互动型的可以促进儿童积极参与社会竞争的学习方法。
  John Dewey in Education and Experience (1938)described this rote process of learning as “static”, referring to traditional education as an “imposition from above and from outside”(p.16). Instead of teachers filling young minds with isolated skills and required subject matter, Dewey advocated that children should be activity involved in their learning and help co-construct knowledge that has both interest and meaning to them. Based on Dewey’s research, two-way dialogues that prompt active participation is highly recommended. 
  探究式学习是一个很值得推荐的选择。我们中加幼儿园正在采用这一先进教学方式。
  Our Pedagogical method in SCCS Preschool is Inquiry-Based Learning.

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  那么,什么是探究式学习呢?探究式学习的好处在哪里?我们中加幼儿园是如何在一日学习日程中进行探究式学习的呢?
  So, what is Inquiry-Based Learning? What are the benefits of Inquiry-Based Learning and how our SCCS preschool  apply Inquiry-Based Learning into daily schedule?

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  根据维基百科,探究式学习开始于学生通过独立自主地发现问题或创设情境,而非老师简单地陈述事实、灌输知识。它是一种积极的学习过程。学生通过识别和研究问题,来学习知识或获得解决方案。探究式学习包括基于问题的学习,通常用于小规模的调查和项目以及研究。 探究式学习主要与思维技能的发展和实践密切相关。
  According to wikipedia, Inquiry-based learning (also enquiry-based learning in British English) starts by posing questions, problems or scenarios—rather than simply presenting established facts or portraying a smooth path to knowledge. The process is often assisted by a facilitator. Inquirers will identify and research issues and questions to develop their knowledge or solutions. Inquiry-based learning includes problem-based learning, and is generally used in small scale investigations and projects, as well as research.The inquiry-based instruction is principally very closely related to the development and practice of thinking skills.

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  探究式学习要求学生自己承担起学习的责任,随之带来的好处也很多。如:
  1.学生可以自己发现问题,变得独立自主。
  2.学生围绕新的话题一起探讨或者独立研究。
  3.学生学习的动机逐步增强。
  4.鼓励批判性思维。
  5.学生可互相学习,取长补短。
  6.在科学领域,学生可以通过做实验以及运用各种技术来学习。
  Inquiry-Based Learning asks our students to take more responsibility for their own learning can prove to be extremely beneficial for their education. Below is a  list  of many benefits of Inquiry-Based Learning.
  1.Students are able to discover their answers on their own and be more independent.
  2.Students work together or individually to learn the new topic.
  3.Increase Student’s Motivation to Learn.
  4.Encourage Critical Thinking.
  5.Gives students the opportunity learn from one another.
  6.It is extremely beneficial in science students are able to work through experiments or use technology to learn.

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  在中加幼儿园,我们和孩子们一起探究的事物数不胜数。例如:孩子们对物体从小到大再从大到小甚至消失的过程很感兴趣。这一切起源于一次户外活动,老师带着孩子们在户外玩打泡泡的游戏。
  基于孩子对泡泡的兴趣,老师们开始提供吹泡泡的学习体验。根据物体从小到大的过程以及吹的经验与动作,老师还提供了气球相关的学习体验。
  “除了用嘴巴吹,用打气筒打气能够让气球变大,还有其它的办法么?”老师们又提供新的探究问题。接着,老师们又提供了白醋、小苏打、小勺子、空塑料瓶、漏斗、量杯给孩子们。

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  关于物体从小到大再从大到小甚至消失的探究式学习还没有结束,它会根据老师准备的各种开放式问题以及孩子们当时当地的兴趣、行为和对话的变化而发生改变。
  总之,我们可以用以下几条建议来帮助和支持孩子们的探究性学习:
  1.教育者视自己为孩子们的合作者、帮助学生拓宽拓深知识的支持者。而非灌输或传递知识的老师。
  2.孩子们拥有时间、空间以及资源来深入地对研究对象进行研究和调查。
  3.拥有充足的物料和空间的环境可以帮助孩子们满足好奇心、求知欲。有趣的物料和资源可以激发他们问问题。同时,我们也要确保他们可以随时取用物料和资料以辅助他们进一步思考和学习。
  4.一日流程中包含孩子们进行思考、调查和探索的时间段。当被给予宽裕的时间,思考和学习会变得更加有效。
  5.探究性学习任务可被视为合作型任务。当孩子们与他人合作解决问题时,他们的学习会变得丰富。多聆听其他人的意见和观点,可以帮助他们拓宽知识面。通过合作,他们之间的关系也会更紧密。
  Inquiry-Based Learning is supported when:
  1.Educators see themselves as co-learners, working with children as they learn.
  2.Children have the time, space and recourses be become deeply involved in their investigations.
  3.The physical environment contains materials and spaces that encourage curiosity, investigation and wonder. Interesting and engaging resources can provide the stimulus for children’s questions and investigations.
  4.The daily routine allows children large blocks of uninterrupted time in which to think, investigate and explore. Thinking and learning happen more effectively when they are unhurried.
  5.Inquiry is seen as a collaborative task. Children’s learning is enriched when they work with others’ ideas and perspectives helps broaden individual understandings.

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